There are three categories of raw water, and accordingly there are three treatment processes:
- Groundwater treatment
- Surface (river / lake) water treatment
- Sea water treatment
Important for all categories are the hygienic barriers for removal of bacteria, virus and parasites.
The usual need for groundwater treatment is linked to processes for:
- Removal of Iron / Manganese using oxidation and filtration
- Remove Fluorine or Arsenic, using membrane filtration based on the A-Aqua double membrane filtration technology
Surface water treatment
Surface waters are often characterized according to turbidity and color (humic substances), taste and odor, pesticides, and organic micro pollutants.
Treatment is done using: Strainer, Chemical coagulation, Sedimentation, Filtration (Sand/Filtralite), Activated Carbon filtration, Disinfection (UV & Chlorination).
The challenges for desalination of sea water are linked to:
- High treatment costs
- High energy use, and
- Disposal of brine
In addition with extensive pretreatment is important (chemical coagulation and filtration for example using Filtralite).